A wellhead is a component located on the surface of oil or gas well, which provides structure and pressure bearing interface for drilling and production equipment.
The main purpose of using the wellhead is to provide a peadant point and pressure seal for casing string from hole bottom to surface pressure control equipment.
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After the digging of oil or gas well is finished, a set of equipment that can control and regulate oil and gas production is required. The said equipment is called wellhead equipment. People uses wellhead equipment becasue it has the following main purposes:
(1) Suspending the weight of all tubing supports in the well;
(2) Seal the annular space between tubing and casing;
(3) Control and regulate the production of oil well;
(4) Ensure all underground operations, such as major repair and minor repair;
(5) It can be usd to record oil pressure and casing pressure data, measure pressure, paraffin removal and other daily production management.
Oil and gas well wellhead equipment can be divided into three types: flowing well wellhead equipment, pumping well wellhead equipment and gas well wellhead equipment.
The same principle of well tubing suspension goes for the three kinds of wellhead equipment. Today, oilfields generally adopt the jacking valve suspension method, that is, a jacking valve is installed on the casing four-way, and there is a tapered channel in the jacking valve. The tubing hanger is also a cone.
With a sealing ring, the tubing suspension sits firmly in the seat of the jacking valve under the pull of the weight of the entire wellbore tubing. The function of the jack wire is to prevent the tubing string from being pushed out when the pressure in the well is too high.
During workover operations, after killing the well, remove the wellhead equipment above the casing spool firstly, then loosen the jack wire and take out the tubing before starting to construct according to the design. After the construction is completed, the tubing is seated in the tubing suspension with the jacking valve tightened, and the wellhead device is installed. So far, the construction is completed.