The succer rod pump is a special form of reciprocating pump that is driven by the oil pumping unit to pump crude oil from the well to the ground. It is mainly composed of four parts, namely the pump barrel, the suction valve (oil inlet valve or fixed valve), piston (plunger), and discharge valve (oil valve or traveling valve).
The power of the succer rod pump is transmitted from underground to the downhole through the succer rod in the pump, and then reciprocating up and down under the action of the plunger. Through this process, the crude oil in the well is transported to the ground along the pipeline. In the process of crude oil extraction, the succer rod pump does a reciprocating movement of up and down strokes. When the succer rod pump is on the upstroke, the volume of the pump barrel under the plunger will increase, and the pressure will decrease accordingly. The suction valve opens with the change of the pressure difference between the upper and lower sides of the pump barrel, allowing crude oil to enter the lower pump cavity; after the crude oil enters the lower pump cavity, the drain valve is automatically closed under the action of the pressure difference. The upper pump cavity above the plunger stores the crude oil sucked underground, and the crude oil is sent to the ground through the reciprocating action of the oil pumping unit. However, when the succer rod pump is on the downstroke, the volume of the lower pump cavity under the plunger will decrease and the pressure will increase accordingly. The suction valve will automatically close as the pressure difference between the upper and lower sides of the pump barrel increases, and the oil will be discharged. The valve opens automatically, so that the crude oil in the lower pump cavity enters the upper pump cavity under pressure. During the reciprocating movement of the succer rod pump, the plunger moves up and down in the pump barrel. This repeated process helps extract the underground crude oil.
According to the characteristics of the reciprocating movement of the succer rod pump, the succer rod pump must meet the following requirements when extracting underground crude oil:
(1) The suction valve, piston and discharge valve of the succer rod pump must have sufficient strength, and the pump barrel must have good sealing properties to ensure the formation and utilization of pressure when the succer rod pump reciprocates.
(2) When the succer rod pump is used for underground crude oil extraction, the oil pumping unit must meet the requirements of reliability and must have a long service life; in addition, the structure, material, processing quality and heat treatment process of the oil inlet valve, oil outlet valve, plunger and pump barrel must meet strict requirements. According to the working principle of oil extraction, the wear resistance and corrosion resistance of the tensioning equipment should be enhanced to extend the service life of the succer rod pump and reduce the cost of oil extraction.
(3) In the process of oil extraction, it is necessary to concentrate the extraction of underground crude oil, increase the crude oil extraction rate, and improve the work efficiency of the succer rod pump; in addition, professionals should be organized to conduct regular inspections on the succer rod pump and other facilities used in the oil extraction process. Regular maintenance and repairs are required to discover problems in time and reduce the economic losses in the crude oil extraction process.