1. The use conditions of oil drilling rigs are becoming more and more diversified
With the continuous development of drilling production, the use conditions of drilling rigs have become more and more diversified, and various types of drilling rigs have appeared accordingly. Factors affecting the type and composition of drilling rigs include drilling method, drilling depth, borehole size and drilling tool size, and drilling area conditions (such as electricity or fuel, transportation, and meteorological conditions).
2. Four classification methods of oil drilling rigs
2.1 According to the drilling method, it can be divided into the followings:
(1) Impact drilling rigs, such as wire rope impact drilling rigs (daytond rilling rigs), vibration drilling rigs, etc.
(2) Rotary drilling rigs, such as those used in rotary drilling.
(3) Down-hole power drilling tools, such as rotary drilling tools, turbo drilling tools, screw drilling tools, electric drilling tools, etc.
2.2 According to the drilling depth, it can be divided into the followings:
(1) Ultra-deep well drilling rig. It adopts a drilling rig with a diameter of 114 mm drill pipe, a nominal drilling depth range of more than 7000 meters, and a maximum hook load of more than 4,500 kN.
(2) Deep well drilling rig. It adopts a drilling rig with a diameter of 114 mm drill rod, a nominal drilling depth range of 4000-7000 meters or more, and a maximum hook load of 2250-4500 kN or more.
(3) Drilling rigs for medium and deep wells. It adopts a drilling rig with a diameter of 114 mm drill pipe, a nominal drilling depth range of 1500-4000 meters or more, and a maximum hook load of 900-2250 kN or more.
2.3 According to the power equipment, it can be divided into the followings:
(1) Diesel engine-driven drilling rigs, which use diesel engines as power through mechanical transmission or hydraulic transmission.
(2) AC driven drilling rig, suitable for use in oil fields with industrial power grids.
(3) The drilling rig is driven by direct current, and the working unit is driven by a direct current motor.
3.4 According to the driving mode, it can be divided into the followings:
(1) Drive alone. Each working machine is driven by generators of different sizes, which are mostly used for electric drive. The transmission is simple and easy to install, but the power utilization rate is low and the total equipment mass is large.
(2) Unified drive. The three working units of drawworks, drilling pump and turntable are driven by the same power unit. Most drilling rigs use this scheme. The unified drive can also include only one drilling pump, and the other drilling pump is driven separately. The unified drive drilling rig has high power utilization and can be adjusted mutually when the engine fails, but the transmission is complicated, installation and adjustment are troublesome, and the transmission efficiency is low.
(3) Group drive. The combination of power is between individual drive and unified drive. There are two options for three working machines. The power utilization rate of this drilling rig is higher than that of a single drive, and the transmission ratio is simple to drive in a unified manner. Two sets of working machines can also be installed on different heights and scattered sites.